What is Heart Attack, Cardiac Arrest and Heart Failure

I find many of patients get confused with term heart attack, cardiac arrest and heart failure. These terms are most commonly used by doctors while explaining disease process to patients and their relatives. In this article, we will discuss in brief meaning of these terms.

Heart attack, cardiac arrest and heart failure are few of the common diseases which affects the cardiovascular system. So, it is necessary to understand what these are and what is the difference between each of them.

Above mentioned diseases can … Read the rest

Neprilysin Inhibitors, HFrEF and 2016 heart failure. Guidelines

Recently i.e. year 2016 both American and European guidelines have recommended combination of Neprilysin inhibitor with ARB i.e. LCZ696 (Sacubitril/valsartan) for treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction(HFrEF)1,2. Landmark trial PARADIGM-HF was prematurely terminated due to significant
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Should cardiologist stay away from DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with heart failure?

Few days’ back I read article about cardiac benefits of incretin based therapy. How these new classes of drugs reduce the infarct size following MI , PCI and etc. however in that article too GLP 1 agonist did better job … Read the rest

Mitral leaflet enlargement prevents functional Mitral Regurgitation in Aortic Regurgitation patients.

Left ventricle dilatation is common in patients with aortic regurgitation but incidence of functional mitral regurgitation is less common. This has been hypothiesed secondary to compensatory increase in mitral leaflet area which prevents functional mitral regurgitation in compensated aortic regurgitation.

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Is Ventricular reshaping surgery back: CONFIGURE-HF stitched ventricle better than STICHED trial.

In STICHED trial benefit of ventricular reshaping surgery in heart failure along with CABG did not show benefit than just CABG. But CONFIGURE –HF Phase -1 trial presented recently in Heart Failure Congress 2013 showed benefit of ventricular reshaping surgery.

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Heart failure links to Vitamin E and Vitamin C

Oxidative stress increases the heart failure and evidence for antioxidants in preventing incidence of heart failure is limited. A study published in circulationexamines this association.


Higher blood level vitamin C was associated with significantly lower risk of developing Heart
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Can resynchronization therapy reduces risk ventricular Arrhythmias?

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has shown to improve quality of life, symptoms, and to reduce heart failure hospitalizations in moderate or severe heart failure patients.


There are few studies which say CRT increases arrhythmias and some studies say it reduces
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Levosimendan in acute decompensated heart failure: REVIVE I and II trials


Levosimendan, a myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer, increases myocardial contractility without increase in oxygen demand. Apart from inotropic effects Levosimendan also has vasodilator effects, by stimulation of adenosine triphosphate–dependent potassium channels.

REVIVE I and II are sequential trials, hypothesis was tested in Read the rest