Hemodynamics of left to right shunt (ASD, VSD, PDA, Endocardial cushion defect) acyanotic heart disease: for medical students

In normal heart both sides of circulation are separated and there is no mixing of blood between left heart and right heart. In some patients at birth there is defect in heart either at level of atria’s or ventricles
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How far one can treat Hypertension without drugs: Life style modification for Hypertension


Hypertension is illness, which more often needs drug therapy throughout life. Most patients do not like to take drugs for hypertension. If blood pressure is not controlled then complication secondary to hypertension are very high.

There is place for
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Hypertension (increase in Blood pressure) over view, for common person


What is blood pressure expression like 140/90 mmhg meaning?
Blood pressure reaches maximum during end of systole and reaches minimum at end of diastole. This what is expressed in blood pressure recordings as two readings i.e., 140/90 mmhg where 140
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Cholesterol: what is it? : LDL, HDL, Triglyceride, and VLDL: how it causes heart attack?


Increased Cholesterol is important risk factor for heart attack. Cholesterol reduction is associated with positive impact in prevention of heart attack
Total Cholesterol is divided into HDL Cholesterol (good cholesterol) and non HDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol)
HDL cholesterol is
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Pregnancy and hypertension (increased blood pressure): Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia


During normal pregnancy, there is fall in blood pressure towards 13th  to 14th  weeks of pregnancy,towards 32 weeks of pregnancy again Blood pressure normalizes

Approximately 10% of first pregnancy is complicated by hypertension, preecplasia are common in first pregnancy

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Pregnancy following cardiac surgery for valvular heart disease; for common person


Surgery for valvular (Mitral valve, Aortic valve) heart disease in young female’s poses a different set of problems. As some patients who under surgery for cardiac valve need valve replacement, this replacement is either mechanical of bioprosthetic valves

Mechanical valves
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